Polish-American translator, academic paper writer, and essay editor specializes in turning Polish-language texts into English, and English to Polish, with an emphasis on carrying the meaning, exactness, taste, cultural contextuality, and the relationships existing among the writer, the reader, and the text. His basic credo and philosophy informing his approach to translating a work is attention to positioning. His understanding is that written texts must fulfil their (often) -predetermined original function(s).


A throughout close analysis of a text in translation must first give an answer to the question: what is the intended effect of the text on the specific reader? He understands that a translator’s first obligation to the client is to be acutely aware of various positioning, i.e. that of the client-company's agenda and of its target audience in the text.

Students can benefit from Tom's example essay writing, editing, and proofreading services. He has successfully completed hundreds of sample essays, research papers, book reports, term papers, courseworks, dissertations, and PhD theses.